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National Marine Fisheries Service

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On December 5, 2017
Last modified:December 5, 2017


National Marine Fisheries Service

National Marine Fisheries Service Research in the North Pacific

The National Marine Fisheries Service’s Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) has a long and successful history of researching in collaboration with the fishing industry. Lots of the yearly resource assessment surveys of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center are performed aboard vessels that were chartered as well as expertise and the ability of team and captains are integral to the achievement of the work.

Fishing companies are contracted to supply vessels and expertise for several unique forms of research, including evaluation and testing of research and commercial fishing equipment and development of advanced methods for estimating commercial catch quantity and composition.

Alaska Fisheries Science Center scientists also have participated in several of industry-initiated research projects including development of selective fishing equipment for bycatch reduction and assessing and enhancing observer catch composition sampling. In this paper, we explain the regulatory and legal provisions for these sorts of work and examples establish the requirements for cooperative research and to illustrate the procedure.

In America, the Federal Government is responsible for management of most commercial fish stocks in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from 3 to 200 nmi offshore. Typically, control of those stocks is carried out under provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSFCMA).

The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act was first authorised in 1976, after the establishment of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Off the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, however, NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and its predecessor. The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (BCF) had established a tradition of conducting cooperative research with U.S. fishing businesses, and with organisations and agencies from overseas nations long before that date.

Following execution of Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, regulations and policies for continued cooperative research activities were set in place, and this regulatory framework has developed during the following 25 years in response to changes in the Act itself and also to specific requirements within each of the five regional administrations of National Marine Fisheries Service. The last reauthorization of Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act happened in 1996 (Anonymous, 1996).

The history of cooperative research in the waters off the U.S. west coast and Alaska is long, and it was remarkably successful and efficient. By way of instance, in the Gulf of Alaska, exploratory fishing started in the late 1940’s (Ronholt et al.). Bottom trawl surveys were conducted from the study and chartered fishing vessels and participants included the International Pacific Halibut Commission, the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, and the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries.

These early research studies were the precursors of regular, regular (annual, biennial, and triennial) ground-fish surveys now completed by National Marine Fisheries Service off the Pacific coast, including Alaska. Since the amount of sea time required exceeds the quantity of research vessel time available, the majority of these studies are conducted aboard chartered vessels. National Marine Fisheries Service designs and led these polls, National Marine Fisheries Service personnel perform the sampling and data collection, and care is required to address concerns regarding consistency. Nonetheless, the work is thought of as combined and depends heavily on executing the fishing operations.

The Alaska Fisheries Science Center resource evaluation survey database comprises the most important and extensive time series available to fisheries scientists in this area. While it might be the most productive of cooperation that is continuing, it is unique. For over 30 years, National Marine Fisheries Service and the fishing industry have cooperated on a wide selection of research in such areas as research and commercial equipment development. Studies of marine mammal’s and seabirds, and collection of fish samples for user research, age and growth studies, feeding behaviour, maturity and reproduction research, and other aspects of fish biology and ecology.

In the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands (BSAI) regions, continuing industry/agency cooperation supports a significant marine fisheries observer program that’s responsible for collecting data necessary to stock assessment and in-season management of catch and bycatch. Costs of the program are shared between the agency and the business (Karp and McElderry, 1999).

Since the Alaska groundfish fisheries have developed during the past 30 years, so have the technology and information needs of scientists, supervisors, and participants in the fishery. By way of instance, greater emphasis on bycatch reduction and loss of marine mammal and seabird requires has sparked developments in gear technology and fishing procedures, while in season fleet quota monitoring demands accurate real-time capture accounting, and vessel-specific quota monitoring further increases the accuracy and precision requirements for capture accounting. There is a substantial advantage, although may be carried out by National Marine Fisheries Service or participants in the fisheries.

In this paper, we examine some provisions for cooperative research, describe three combined research studies that were designed to assess questions about grab weight reduction, catch composition sampling, and bycatch reduction, and discuss factors that contribute to the success of cooperative research activities.

National Marine Fisheries Service Research

Fisheries research conducted inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone may be approved either via a Letter of Agreement (LOA), a Scientific Research Permit (SRP), an Exempted Fishing Permit (EFP), or an Exempted Educational Activity Authorization (EEA). LOA’s are usually issued to non-National Marine Fisheries Service research institutions like state fishery agencies, universities, or foreign government agencies researching U.S. waters. Scientific Research Permits are required for all National Marine Fisheries Service research tasks carried out aboard chartered or government-operated vessels.

Exempted Fishing Permits are necessary for industry-sponsored research when the suspension of fishing regulations is needed (i.e. when fishing could happen in a closed area or during a closed season, or whenever a prohibited type of equipment would be used). Exempted Fishing Permits are required if fishing is involved. When compensatory fishing is approved, the boat(s) involved are permitted to harvest fresh fish after the research was concluded and to market this fish to help offset research costs. Exempted Educational Activity Authorizations are necessary for sample collecting and field trips.

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Fisheries Science Center

Though Scientific Research Permits are not National Marine Fisheries Service policy demands that they are issued. Besides describing the research and the demand for the job, concerns regarding possible impacts of the research on marine mammals, endangered species, and the environment must be addressed in an Scientific Research Permit.

The Letter of Agreements, Scientific Research Permits, and Exempted Educational Activity Authorizations are issued following guidelines and agency directives. For releasing Exempted Fishing Permits the procedure, however, is much more complicated. Generally speaking, an application that details the reason for the proposed study, the experimental design and process, and the necessary allocations of fish (if any) must be filed. National Marine Fisheries Service first reviews the program (although applications are usually developed in collaboration with National Marine Fisheries Service).

Review by National Marine Fisheries Service

After satisfactory review by National Marine Fisheries Service, the application is reviewed by the proper regional Fishery Management Council (FMC). It sent back with recommendations for resubmission to the applicant, rejected, or might be endorsed. The program is published to allow opportunities for public comment if supported by the Fishery Management Council that was proper. Providing it meets policy and legal requirements, the license is assigned. Permit requirements are specified in the fishery management plans. Business organisations may work with agency scientists when planning and conduct research, although Agency participation isn’t required under an Exempted Fishing Permit.

An additional vehicle for cooperative research is provided under Public Law 91-412 (U.S. Code 1525) (Anonymous, 1970). This statute permits the Secretary of Commerce to apportion the costs equitably and to take part in projects with research organisations, organisations, or public agencies or organisations. By way of instance, by covering costs related to the provision of a chartered 37, a nonprofit corporation, including a research base, could cooperate to enlarge the reach of a resource assessment survey.

Research would take a memorandum of understanding between the bureau and the organisation and would need an Scientific Research Permit. Thus, although authorisation and permitting requirements may depend on whether the job is started by the business or the bureau. On the origin of financing, or on the goals of the research itself, it’s usually possible to implement a well-designed research study which involves industry/agency collaboration in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands.

Bycatch Reduction

An essential aspect of Groundfish Management in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea Aleutian Islands worries the so-called prohibited species catch (PSC). From the management strategies for these regions species are regarded as sufficiently utilised by fisheries and their ownership aboard vessels is limited or illegal. By way of instance, trawlers are prohibited from retaining Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis, and lots of valuable Alaska trawl fisheries frequently close prematurely if their halibut bycatch allowances are attained (Pennoyer, 1997).

Three approaches are available to the industry for reducing bycatch mortality: avoidance of areas decrease of handling death, and alteration of fishing methods to lower prices. Avoidance measures have been successful, and the fleets benefit from catch and retrospective data analysis reporting to avoid bycatch areas. Target species catch rates are high in regions of halibut abundance that is high such that avoidance of these areas will reduce the daily production and so the income of a vessel. Reduction of managing mortality is powerful.

Caps are expressed as metric tons of halibut mortality, and observers are trained to ascertain the condition (and hence survival rate) of halibut returned to the sea. Prices may be improved by fishing practices, and by taking steps to reunite incidentally. Innovations in equipment technology and fishing methodology also have been effective in reducing the retention of halibut, albeit often. However, operators and owners of some flatfish trawlers have been effective in reducing bycatch rates, and the next section describes research that was initiated assess its effectiveness during a flatfish fishery and to identify among the innovations.

Groundfish Forum ( Fishing Boat Owners Association )

Application to check a halibut excluder device for flatfish trawls in April 1998. The Exempted Fishing Permit gave that the amounts of catch and bycatch species which would have to be caught to perform the design of this study and was designed with assistance. The fishing boat for running the Exempted Fishing Permit was chosen through a request for proposals solicitation distributed to owners of flatfish trawlers that were curious. Individuals were needed to describe their bycatch reduction devices and supply necessary supporting information, such as fishing practices and resources.

The four applications submitted were evaluated by a group of National Marine Fisheries Service scientists based on effectiveness, history of testing, and evaluation of the suitability of the boat and its fishing equipment. A rigid grate design, filed by the owner of this 36-m (117-foot) F/V Legacy has been chosen.

The halibut excluder consisted of a rigid grate mounted at an angle (bottom further forward than the top, roughly 28[degrees] incline) from the intermediate segment of the internet. Fish coming to the grate from the net’s mouth could pass to the section of the web through the 15 x 15 cm openings or be deflected toward an escape tube. A deflector grate was installed using a slant ahead of the grill to direct fish. It was similar in structure to the first grating but with 7.6 x 7.6 cm openings. The rear edge of the deflector and the first grate shaped a 23 cm wide slot by which fish had to pass to reach an escape tube.

Since the design required more tows than could be done by a single vessel in the available time, another ship was chosen, the smaller 33-m (107-foot) F/V Alliance. Tests were conducted in 1998 in the Gulf of Alaska to a deepwater flatfish complex including the economically important flatfish rex sole, Glyptocephalus zachirus; Dover sole, Microstomus pacificus; and flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon, and the low-value but abundant arrowtooth flounder, Atherestes stomias.

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National Marine Fisheries Service

The design involved paired tows for each boat. The first tow in each set or block (experimental or control) was determined randomly, and the next tow was completed as closely in space and time to the first as you can. Tow duration varied between blocks, and data were analysed on the basis that was catch-per-distance-towed. Grab trained observers completed weighing and sorting with help from National Marine Fisheries Service scientists and the team.

The data sets indicated that the excluder retained just 6 percent of the when excluding only 38 percent of the deepwater flatfish species that were aggregated. Between 48 percent and 79% varied. Retention rates were similar for the two vessels with a trend for the F/V Legacy that is larger to allow escapement, for all species except rex sole. Larger halibut were excluded more efficiently than younger people, although only fish weighing 3 kg or less were kept in high (46 percent by weight) percentage. Size-specific retention rates couldn’t be determined since span sampling of target flatfish wasn’t a priority.

This research the effectiveness of this grate that is rigid halibut excluder device in reducing bycatch. It was evident that the apparatus could be handled on a small vessel like the F/V Alliance. Reduction in catches of some target species was of concern as well as the inability to determine retention rates of target species is unfortunate.

Research to evaluate retention rates and mechanisms for decreasing an accumulation of debris and fish before the mesh is justified, and the researchers suggest that evaluation of net excluder systems, which can be more comfortable to manage, also be assessed. Further details are available in Gauvin and Rose (2001) and Rose and Gauvin (2001).

Species Composition Sampling

Sampling for species composition presents challenges that are unique. Catches may be significant and diverse, mainly. Access to the catch might be restricted due to space constraints or operational and processing requirements, and stratification by size and species may occur in the codend. Systematic sampling of capture or Random is needed for the characterisation of catch composition but might be tricky to achieve.

When quota monitoring is the management goal- or sampling might not be of concern. This is because of sampling variability inaccuracies average out throughout the fleet and, since all boats must stop fishing whenever the quota is reached, vessel owners are not concerned about sampling issues on their vessels. When bycatch or catch quotas are handled at the vessel level, supervisors and owners recognise the consequences of sampling, and the estimation and sampling process may receive increased scrutiny.

During the last few decades, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) has implemented a range of vessel-specific catch and bycatch programs, and a whole lot of attention was concentrated on species composition sampling by observers. Sample sizes are usually small relative to capture dimensions (even a 500 kg sample is small relative to some 30 t or even 150 t capture). And the random sampling requirement might be compromised by boat operations such that observers only have access to, as an instance, the first fish to be spilt in the codend after the catch was dumped. In a number of these programs, vessels should stop fishing once they reach their catch limitation for some of the species, and business members have raised concerns about the accuracy of catch accounting that is sample-based. This has the potential to undermine confidence and may place observers in situations while.

Both the fishing industry and National Marine Fisheries Service identified a need to seek solutions and then to better understand the issues associated with catch composition sampling in fisheries. The Groundfish Forum took the initiative to draft an Exempted Fishing Permit program which found improvements in species composition sampling through quantification and identification of possible inaccuracies of sampling practices. Design and the concept were developed with the aid of National Marine Fisheries Service scientists.

The research was designed to test species composition sampling aboard a trawler targeting flathead sole and grabbing roundfish and flatfish. Interested fishing companies were requested to prepare proposals explaining grab processing could be handled on their vessels catch census to fulfil up with the sampling and discard weighing demands of the analysis. The factory trawler American No. 1 was chosen. North Pacific Fishery Management Council and National Marine Fisheries Service approved the Exempted Fishing Permit program which provided for a sufficient quantity of catch and bycatch (672t in total) to encourage the sample size requirement for 62 hauls.

From every haul, six 100 kg samples were taken randomly for estimation of species composition, then all remaining halibut, snow crabs, Chionoecetes spp., and skates, Rajidae, were removed and weighed. Discard, and manufacturing documents were preserved.

After the fieldwork, the data were examined to compare sample-estimated weights to census-based weights for skates, Pacific halibut, and snow crabs (crab comparisons were based on numbers of people). And to compare haul-specific, daily, and total-cruise estimates based on observer samples with those based on creation and drop estimates for retained species (walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma; Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus; yellowfin sole, Limanda aspera; Alaska plaice, Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus; and flathead sole). Data from individual samples inside hauls were also examined on a species-by-species foundation to find out whether stratification (sorting by species and dimensions) occurred.

Species composition estimates based on observer sampling were similar to estimates based on boat creation plus discards in the cruise and haul amount, though every method has consequences. For commonly occurring species (each making up 15-20 percent of the makeup of individual grabs), grab estimates agreed well, and variances were low, even at the haul level. But for bycatch species (usually making up less than two % of the makeup of individual hauls), variances related to catch estimates were high, especially at the haul amount although arrangement between quotes improved when catches were aggregated to the week or railroad amount.

Within-catch stratification was observed for walleye pollock, yellowfin sole, Pacific cod, Alaska plaice, and “others.” Stratification was relatively stable for pollock, yellowfin sole, and Pacific cod and might account for as much as 20 percent of pollock catch estimation variability. Stratification wasn’t detected for crabs. Catches of Pacific and skate halibut were too small to test for stratification trends. Sampling conditions were perfect; access to the catches was unrestricted so that observers could collect samples that are replicated without any difficulty. This sort of situation occurs during fishery operations.

Despite the fact that stratification within grabs is of concern, this research supports the view that sampling methods are acceptable for monitoring of bycatch quotas and catch. Variability may be high, however, mainly. Although its effects could be ameliorated by drawing on on several samples stratification may contribute to this variability.

Flathead Fishery

Concerns arise for the flathead fishery and other fisheries with grab features when monitoring for bycatch species that is rare is on daily basis or a single haul. Over or underestimates of species could be expected for hauls. Therefore, the catch managed fisheries might be tricky to achieve. Lots of the vessels operate that accounting against quotas is based on samples. Uncertainty in the resulting catch estimates may cause closures for others and closures for some boats.

Because of this study, sampling limitations are known by National Marine Fisheries Service and the fishing sector. This view that is shared may lead to solutions like alterations to observer methods and boat operations to mitigate the consequences of stratification that is codend. It may also result to redesign management applications based on sampling expectations that are unrealistic and, possibly, to criteria for the design of new programs.

Estimation of Catch Weight

In the large-scale catcher processor trawl fisheries of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands, observers estimate catch weight by first determining the amount of the catch and then applying a density variable (volume to weight conversion factor) to compute weight. Sometimes, marked and illuminated holding bins are utilised to contain grabs, and quantity measurement is straightforward. In most situations, however, containers aren’t accessible, and observers must resort to using these measures to estimate catch quantity making measurements of the codend, and make the conversion to weight using a density element.

Until recently, managers were, so that variability in catch accounting wasn’t taken into consideration, catch quotas. With the arrival of management conditions, the need to deal with ship catch accounting precision issues became apparent. Alternatives for catch weight determination are available including direct for estimating catch volume weighing.

National Marine Fisheries Service to evaluate approaches and methods but understood that the sort of evaluation’s success would be based on the applicability of the findings in fishing scenarios. The independence and objectivity of the analysis were of overriding importance since the results of the research may be used to encourage unpopular change.

National Marine Fisheries Service Study

Though industry cooperation and participation were essential to the achievement of the study, National Marine Fisheries Service initiated and designed the study, and the design required National Marine Fisheries Service to guide the fishing and processing of this boat. The company would also have to perform alterations and to equip its vessel using a flow scale sensors for measuring the thickness of fish in bins. They would be asked to conduct research tows inside and outside the fishing seasons. National Marine Fisheries Service issued a request for proposals (RFP) to fishing businesses interested in supplying a factory trawler with the team and equipment needed to carry out the work. Supply a bid price, the amount and companies had to address all of the requirements. After the contract was awarded, National Marine Fisheries Service issued a Scientific Research Permit that accredited fishing beyond the fishing season, in accord with the research program. In this example, the vessel was permitted to keep catches.

Fieldwork was completed in 1996 and 1997, though only the 1997 work is outlined here (Dorn et al.,1999). The objectives of the research were to ascertain the truth of a flow scale and evaluate processes for tracking flow scale operation. Assess the validity of volumetric procedures of capture weight determination, evaluate using ultrasonic bin detectors for determining fish volume in holding bins., and obtain specific density variables for use in capacity to weight reduction for walleye pollock catches, and assess current and alternative methods used by observers to determine density.

The study design required between 150 and 200 trawls to be obtained over a selection of catch sizes. This provided the foundation for conducting comparisons of catch weight estimates derived from the flow scale with volumetric forecast obtained from codend dimensions, direct measurements of bin quantity, or ultrasonic (bin detector) dimensions of bin volume.

Scale performance was monitored during the study. Assessment of observer methods for estimation of fish density was conducted by estimating density straight (weighing known Volumes of fish on the flow scale) and a new way of density estimation by observers was tested. A prototype sampler made to address was used by this Problems perforated baskets. The model was constructed from a cone of Approximately 55 gallons (0.21 [m.sup.3]) and has been designed for ease of filling, emptying, and volume measurement by observers.

The flow scale has been found to be a weight is caught by a tool for measuring, and it functioned during the project within error limits that are established. However, comparisons with fish samples of known weight indicated a consistent positive bias of about 1 percent in this experiment (Dom et al., 1999).

Volume measurements were found to be more consistent and dependable although a tendency for overestimation of quantity (or decrease in density) for big codends was evident when codend volume/density established weight estimates were compared with flow scale observations. Bin volume dimensions (for this perfect situation where bins were correctly calibrated, marked, and illuminated) were found to be quite precise. Ultrasonic bin detector methods were shown to be reliable except when bins were complete.

Results obtained with the density sampler were encouraging. They didn’t change by the observer and were consistent. Density estimates obtained by density sampler methods and the basket compared with forecasts while volume estimates tended to indicate density values, derived from quantity methods. Based on these results, the researchers recommended changes (increases) in the current density variables for pollock. They also advocated changes in observer training to enhance volumetric estimates of big codends (Dom et al., 1999).

While all these studies reviewed here was created to deal with a particular area of concern, they discuss a number of the features of successful research. National Marine Fisheries Service and the fishing industry have overlapping interests in understanding the catch accounting, reducing bycatch, and implementing improvements in capture accounting systems. Additional industry and agency catch accounting concerns are becoming acuter with the execution of management applications which require tracking of vessel operation. Thus, National Marine Fisheries Service and the fishing industry recognised the need. The production took the initiative and took advantage of the chance and also Exempted Fishing Permit provisions to work with National Marine Fisheries Service in partnership. National Marine Fisheries Service identified the need to execute the work and decided that contracting with a fishing business would be critical. As in most situations where the agency initiates the study, a Scientific Research Permit was required for this study.

When the Groundfish Forum Pioneered the study, they realised the benefits of working with National Marine Fisheries Service scientists educated in the subject of fish behaviour and design about fishing equipment. The notion of evaluating participants by their reduction device’s design could have been hard to implement in a study and was innovative. The ability of the Groundfish Forum illustrates an extra advantage of the strategy.

The catch composition sampling the Groundfish Forum initiated analysis. National Marine Fisheries Service scientists were working on improved observer training, sampling protocols, and business outreach to address precision concerns, and they understood that the opportunities. When grab accounting happens on the basis or drags the Groundfish Forum managed to come up with its proposal in response to industry concerns concerning the problems. And they could implement the study far more rapidly than could have been the situation in a review.

National Marine Fisheries Service estimation study initiated the catch weight. Assessment of functionality at sea was essential given the North Pacific Fishery Management Council to require such systems aboard vessels’ management. National Marine Fisheries Service took advantage of this chance to assess a better method for density estimation and innovative and current techniques. It was essential that the work is carried out manufacturing fishery operations, during regular aboard a vessel. The involvement of fishing business personnel contributed to the job as well as the credibility of the results.

However, government scientists were provided by the arrangement with the ability to direct operations when issues arose, and to make changes. As a result of this study, National Marine Fisheries Service adopted a standard density factor for converting pollock catch volume estimates. Because the density variable was more significant than the one, this outcome wasn’t popular with the fishing sector. The results obtained a high level of scrutiny. Combined research’s findings can’t always be expected to be welcomed by all parties.

Integral these to each study were the National Marine Fisheries Service North Pacific Groundfish Observer’s observer’s Program. Observers are deployed to record catch Composition and quantity; expertise and their training make them uniquely Qualified to gather research data described herein. Each of these studies was concerned, with the audience, to a degree The catch weight and catch, and reviews provide sampling methodology composition sampling opportunities for improving and assessing observer data collection protocols.

The catch requirements for research of the type are demanding, and the availability of appropriately trained And field biologists. Because of the Involvement and, especially Sampling practices were evaluated during two of the jobs, Opportunities were afforded to recognise the issues that observers experience when performing responsibilities aboard fishing vessels. The has resulted in some suggestions for solutions Problems and recognition of the constraints of the observer-based catch monitoring system.

The success of combined studies is dependent upon the capacity of scientists and business employees to work together at all levels, including the senior staff who develop research theories and supply political and financial support. Those involved in the detailed design and preparation, and scientists and industry personnel involved in data collection, analysis, and reporting. When research results aren’t deemed favourable, this commitment might be tested. The finding that caused an increase in the density variables that are typical was unpopular, so questions concerning the applicability of this study had to be solved. Bureau assumptions concerning the appropriateness of basing vessel-specific and drag capture accounting on sample data are challenged as a consequence of the catch composition sampling analysis.

Collaborations between industry and National Marine Fisheries Service might be appealing since National Marine Fisheries Service allows sale and preservation of fish caught in funding. The Exempted Fishing Permit study to research catch composition sampling at the flatfish fishery supplied a set of flatfish and other species to the fishing associated with the experiment. The organisation owning the vessel that participated in the analysis was able to encourage the boat’s fishing costs and the additional crew duties related to the proceeds of the sale of fish. The expected charter price of the vessel to run the experimentation without retention of the catch would have been around $20,000 to $25,000 per day or close to $500,000 within the three months of the experiment. This estimate is based on the expected revenue daily of the vessel in the event the ship engaged at the time of this research in one of the fisheries open.

For certain kinds of research, the applicability of the results may depend upon the degree to which research conditions resemble the actual fishing conditions. This resemblance is very likely to be higher when the vessel is based on the revenues. As an example, if the study were conducted under a research charter, crew and the skipper would have had an incentive to catch quantities with composition than would happen in a catch. This is because the work of weighing and sorting catch could be less if the catch per haul were diverse or smaller.

We’ve described only three of the cooperative studies which have happened in the waters. We also have demonstrated that bureau or industry initiated cooperation can succeed. Sometimes, like the charters for stock assessment surveys, the agency launched agreements would be the most suitable. In other cases, like the study industry initiated research is suitable. For different scenarios, either approach could be successful. Regulatory provisions developed under statutes and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, together with agency processes, for supporting research provide mechanisms. However, is the commitment by industry and agency personnel to recognise the importance of carrying out high quality, scientifically research and to work.